Panchangam Program

Select Month: Year: Place:


Notes

This program gives tamil month name, date, moon phase and star position for any Roman Calendar month. Reference point for calculation is Ujjain. Calculation is in days avoiding calendar year problems.
Input is in (month - year) as Gregarian calendar.
Julian date
Julian dates (abbreviated JD) are simply a continuous count of days and fractions since noon Universal Time on January 1, 4713 BC (on the Julian calendar).
A.D. 1 Jan 1 UT00:00:00.0 is 1721423.500000
A.D. 2019 Jan 1 UT 00:00:00.0 is 2458484.500000

Julian Website
Julian dates are widely used as time variables within astronomical software. The time scale that is the basis for Julian dates is Universal Time, and that 0h UT corresponds to a Julian date fraction of 0.5. Various calendar systems have been in use at different times and places around the world. This implementation uses the Gregorian calendar and its predecessor Julian calendar.

The Julian calendar has a leap year every fourth year. This will work if one year is 365.25. But a tropical year is also known as a solar year approx 365.24219 days. So every 100 years, 1.219 days are added. So, Gregorian calendar was modified and has a leap year every fourth year except century years not exactly divisible by 400. Changeover from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar occurred in October of 1582, according to the scheme instituted by Pope Gregory XIII. Specifically, for dates on or before 4 October 1582, the Julian calendar is used; for dates on or after 15 October 1582, the Gregorian calendar is used. The error accumulated in the 13 centuries since the Council of Nicaea in AD 325 was corrected by a deletion of 10 days. Calendar cycles repeat completely every 400 years, where 303 are regular years of 365 days and 97 are leap years of 366 days. A mean calendar year is 365+(97/400) days = 365.2425 days.
The Julian calendar day Thursday, 4 October 1582 was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October 1582 (the cycle of weekdays was not affected). Thus, there is a ten-day gap in calendar dates, but no discontinuity in Julian dates or days of the week: 4 October 1582 (Julian) is a Thursday, which begins at JD 2299159.5; and 15 October 1582 (Gregorian) is a Friday, which begins at JD 2299160.5.

Ancient Calendars

Egyptians, Phoenicians, Persians, Greeks, Roman, and many cultures began their new year with the fall equinox. The Roman Festival of Saturnalia for god Saturn took place between December 17th and 23rd. Birthday of the unconquered sun was held on December 25th for Sun god Mithra. The Winter Solstice on around December 22nd, meant that the winter was over and spring was coming.

Around 1600 years back the day Sun enters Makara Rashi (Capricorn) was coinciding with the day of Uttarayana or Winter Solstice or Surya beginning Northern journey (Northern hemisphere). This happens to be harvest season. It is also Thiruvalluvar new year or early Tamil New Year starting on winter or December solstice. Because of earth's precession, Tamil new year shifted by around 22 days.

Mesopotamians and early Indians celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, March 23 (Current Hindu Saka calendar). There is a parallel system of the Vikrama Era. The origin of the Shaka era is highly controversial, associated to the ascension of many other kings such as Gautamiputra Satakarni Chashtana, Kanishka and Nahapana. Saka era or Shalivahana Sakabda is the vernal equinox of the year AD 78 (around 28200 days from common era). Later many Indian systems shifted new year from solstice to March Equinox, during the time of Bhadra, Indian astronomer. Because of earth's precession, Tamil new year shifted by around 22 days.

Indian Calendars
Hindu calendar is a collective name for many luni-sidereal calendars and Shalivahana calendar
Kalacakra calendar in use, 60 year cycle starting with Prabhava, is by Pandita Somanatha of Kashmir/Himalayas, in 367 CE. Vernal equinox of 367 CE is Prabava Varsham. He further developed sexa decimal system. The earth's axis wobble that causes the precession of the equinoxes is approximately 25,920 years or 432 sixty year cycles. Chandranath introduced lunisolar calendar and Indian cycle of 60 years in Tibet and China.
Kaliyuga calendar; (3102 BCE);
Buddha Nirvana calendar; (544 BCE)
Bikram Sambat (56 BCE) or Vikrama calendar.lunar months, solar sidereal years
Thiruvalluvar calendar (31 BCE)
Saka calendar of (78 CE or 3181 Kali) initiated by Shalivahana or Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni
Shaka Samvat (indian official): solar months, solar tropical years
Bengali Calendar (593 CE)
Tamil Nadu/Kerala: solar tropical years and solar months
Kolla Varsham calendar or Malayalam calendar (824 CE)
There are other eras such as: Vedanga Jyotisa; Gaurabda Gaudiya; and Kolla Varsham. Vikrama Samvat:

Years are counted in the Saka era, which starts its year 0 in the year 78 of the Common Era (28205 days from Common Era on equinox). Its structure is similar to the Persian calendar. The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars.
# Month - Length - Start date - Tropical zodiac
1 Chaitra 30/31 March 22/21 Aries Meṣa
2 Vaishākha 31 April 21 Taurus Vṛṣabha
3 Jyēshtha 31 May 22 Gemini Mithuna
4 Āshādha 31 June 22 Cancer Karkata
5 Shrāvana 31 July 23 Leo simha
6 Bhaadra 31 August 23 Virgo Kanyā
7 Āshwin 30 September 23 Libra Tulā
8 Kārtika 30 October 23 Scorpio Vṛścika
9 Agrahayana 30 November 22 Sagitarius Dhanur
10 Pausha 30 December 22 Capricorn Makara
11 Māgha 30 January 21 Aquarius Kumbha
12 Phalguna 30 February 20 Pisces Mīna


Nakshatras
1) Aswinee - Asvini - Beta Arietis (3)
2) Apabarani - Barani - 35 Arietis (3)
3) Krittikaa - Karthikai - Eta Tauri (6)
4) Rohinee - Rohini - Aldebaran (5)
5) Mrigaseeroo - Mirugasirsham - Lambda Orionis (3)
6) Ardra - Thiruvadirai - Alpha Orionis (1)
7) Punarvasu - Punarpoosam - Beta Geminorium (2 to 4)
8) Pushya - Poosam - Delta Cancri (3)
9) Aslesha - Aayilyam - Alpha Hydroe (1)
10) Makha - Magam - Regulus (5)
11) Poorvaphalguni - Pooram - Delta Leonis (2)
12) Uthraphalguni - Uttaram - Beta Leonis (2)
13) Hastha - Hastham - Delta Corvi (3)
14) Chitraa - Chitirai - Spica Virginis - Vegus (1)
15) Swathi - Swati - Arcturus (1)
16) Vishakha - Visakam - Alpha Libroe (2)
17) Anuradha - Anusham - Delta Scorpio (4)
18) Jyeshta - Kettai - Antares (3)
19) Moola - Moolam - Lambda Scorpio (11)
20) Poorvashada - Pooradam - Delta Sagittari (2)
21) Uthrashada - Uttaradam - Sigma sagittari (3)
21-22) Abhijit - Vega, the brightest star in the northern constellation of Lyra
22) Sravana - Thiruvonam - Alpha Aquiloe (3)
23) Dhanishta - Avittam - Beta Delphinum (4)
24) Sathabhisha - Sadayam - Lambda Aquarius (100)
25) Poorvabhadrapada - Purattadhi - Alpha Pegasi (2)
26) Utharabhadrapada - Uttarattadhi - Gama Pegasi (2)
27) Rewati - Revathi - Zeta Piscum (32)
Solar sidearal months
1) Aries - Mesham - Chaitra - Chitirai
2) Taurus - Vrishabam - Vaishaakha - Vaikasi
3) Gemini - Mithunam - Jyaishtha - Aani
4) Cancer - Karkata - Aashaadha - Aadi
5) Leo - Simham - Shraavana - Aavani
6) Virgo - Kanya - Bhaadrapada - Purratasi
7) Libra - Tula - Aashvayuja - Aiypasi
8) Scorpio - Vrischikam - Kaartika - Kaarthigai
9) Sagittarius - Dhanur - Maargashiirsha - Maargazhi
10) Capricon - Makaram - Pausha - Thai
11) Aquarius - Kumbham - Maagha - Maasi
12) Pisces - Meenam - Phaalguna - Panguni
Astronomical Zodiac 13 actual signs
1) Aries - Apr 18 to May 13
2) Taurus - May 13 to Jun 21
3) Gemini - Jun 21 to Jul 20
4) Cancer - Jul 20 to Aug 10
5) Leo - Aug 10 to Sep 16
6) Virgo - Sep 16 to Oct 30
7) Libra - Oct 30 to Nov 23
8) Scorpius - Nov 23 to Nov 29
9) Ophiuchus - Nov 29 to Dec 17
10) Sagittarius - Dec 17 to Jan 20
11) Capricorn - Jan 20 to Feb 16
12) Aquarius - Feb 16 to Mar 11
13) Pisces - Mar 11 to Apr 18
Astronomical cycles
It uses concept of cycles, when planets align. Ammavasai is alignment of sun and moon. Metonic cycle is 19 years or 235 lunar months or approx 6940 days, nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month. With in 19 years, every 8 and 11 are close match. Callippic cycle, is a 76-year cycle of 27759 days.
14th April 2010, solar lunar cycles align
The saros is a period of approximately 223 synodic months (approximately 6585.3211 days, or 18 years and 11 days and 8h), that can be used to predict eclipses of the Sun and Moon. One saros period after an eclipse, the Sun, Earth, and Moon return to approximately the same relative geometry, a near straight line, and a nearly identical eclipse will occur, in what is referred to as an eclipse cycle.There are many cycles like this
The Wolf cycle (solar sunspot cycle) has a period that fluctuates but averages 11.2 years. Jupiter’s solar orbital cycle is 11.9 Earth years.
Saturn, the second-largest planet, has a solar orbital cycle of 29.4 Earth years.
This leads to Jupiter-Saturn conjunction every 19.9 years (J/S Synodic Cycle).
A full cycle of Jupiter / Saturn around the sun (J/S Tri-Synodic Cycle) is 59.6 years.

According to the astronomer and mathematician the Aryabhatta finished his book "Aryabhattiya" in 499 CE, and wrote the book in the year 3600 of the Kali Age. Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE. The starting point of Kali Yuga is an extremely rare planetary alignment, which is depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals.
Yukteswar in the book The Holy Science (1894), states that a complete Yuga Cycle takes 24,000 years, and is comprised of an ascending cycle of 12,000 years when virtue gradually increases and a descending cycle of another 12,000 years.
There are many interpreetations on works of Aryabhatta, Paulisa, Srishena, Vishnucandra and others. The general understanding in ancient Indian astronomy was that all the planets commenced their movement together at 0° of Aries but returned to the same position in the heavens, at certain fixed intervals, resulting in a universal conjunction. Surya Siddhanta states that sun was 54 degrees away from vernal equinox when Kaliyuga started on a new moon day, corresponding to February 17/18, 3102 BCJ, at Ujjain (75deg47minE 23deg 15 min N). Varaha Mihira states that 2526 years before start of saka count (either Shalivahana saka starting in 79 AD or Vikrama saka starting in 57 BC)