Earth (land mass) with curvature looks like the back of a Turtle which, is a good representation of the slowly sliding Earth plates. Scriptures (Varaha, an ancient geographer) classified earth land mass (bhudevi) into seven dvipas and further sub-divided into the varshas, surrounded by seven seas, after deluge or ice age.
- Patala means beyond seas - not below seas. Krishna crossed the ocean and rescued teacher's son from Ethiopia. This applies to story of Mahabali also.
- Devaloka means north of Bharatha, Himalayas and beyond. Not above.
- Swarka means "swa - raka, same type or category like us". Naraka means opposite "na - raka, , not our type or category". They are not physical locations. One is happy when he is in company of like minded people. Similarly, heaven means sky or other planets/solar systems, home of alien myths. People thought devas/gods came from heaven (sky). Alien myths, that super beingscame from sky or other planets and developed our civilization are widely believed in all cultures . Later people created stories on them. When an airplane that had accidentally landed in a remote Indian coastal village, villagers rushed to garland the plane and pilot as gods came from heaven.
Lord Varaha carefully placed fearful Earth on the water and gave her the ability to float. The god in the form of a boar (varaha) plunges into the waters and brings the earth out. He also marries the earth thereafter. The cult of Varaha seems to have been popular in the Gupta era (4th-6th century) in Central India, considering the large number of Varaha sculptures and inscriptions found. Symbolism also attributes that evolution from water could relate to the geological phenomenon of the tectonic age. It could also represent the rescue of earth from “false cults”.
Hindu Universe - Cosmogony and Geography
There are 14 universes (Bhuvanas) in the Multiverse (= Creation or Srishti), and we live in the middle universe.
Continent or Dvipa
Earth consisted of seven dvipa or continents and each of these was divided into a number of varsas or subcontinents. These dvipas were surrounded by seven oceans containing water which salt, sugarcane-juice, wine, clarified butter, curd, milk and good drinking water mixed in the water of the ocean.
(1)Jambu dvipa North, Central and Southern Asia (southern part is bharat) The Jambu dvipa, literally refers to "the land of Jambu trees" where Jambu is the name of the species (also called Jambul or Indian Blackberry) which occupied the central position, among the seven dvipas, had in its middle a golden mountain called Meru, with a ring of land. The Mount Meru is in the central and from which a number of other mountains including the Himalaya radiated in different directions like the petals of a lotus. This dvipa was divided into nine varsas or subcontinents, one of which was Bharata-varsa (India). Mount Meru is considered as the axis of the spherical earth. Jambu Dvipa is separated from the next dvipa Plakshadvipa by an ocean of salt.
(2)Plaksa dvipa: Mediterranean - some include north africa
(3)Saimali dvipa: East Africa - some include west /south Africa
(4)Kusa dvipa: Middle east
(5)Kraunca dvipa: Europe
(6)Saka dvipa: South east asia, australasia, Oceania
(7)Puskara dvipa: East and North East Asia
Jambu dvipa continent has 6 mighty mountains, dividing the continent into 7 zones (Ksetra). The names of these zones are:
Continent/ Island Ocean
Lavanoda (Salt - ocean)
Kaloda (Black sea)
Puskaroda (Lotus Ocean)
Varunoda (Varun Ocean)
Kshiroda (Ocean of milk)
Ghrutoda (Ghee ocean)
Iksuvaroda (Ocean of Sugarcane Juice)
Surya Siddhantic system states that Mt Meru resides at the centre (equator) of globe
Meru 0.0500° N, 37.6500° E
Indian Standard Time is calculated in Shankargarh Fort, Mirzapur (25.15°N 82.58°E)
Prayag or Ilahabad 25.4358° N, 81.8463° E east–west distance of more than 2,933 kilometres or 28 degrees of longitude
Nashik 20.0000° N, 73.7800° E
Ujjain 23.1828° N, 75.7772° E
Kataragama Latitude DMS: 6°25'7.72"N Longitude: 81.333753.
Allahabad 25.4500° N, 81.8500° E
Kaleshwaram (18.8110, 79.9067)
Srikalahati (13.749802, 79.698410)
Kanchipuram (12.847604, 79.699798)
Thiruvanaikaval (10.853383, 78.705455)
Tiruvannamalai (12.231942, 79.067694)
Chidambaram (11.399596, 79.693559)
Rameswaram (9.2881, 79.3174)
Mount Kailash 6,638 m 31.0667° N, 81.3125° E Kailash Manasarovar 21,778 for almost all religions and faiths like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Chinese and Bons.
Manimahesh champah Kailash 5,653 m 32° 23'N 76° 40'E
Kinnaur Kailash 6,500 m 31.5206° N, 78.3636° E
Adi Kailash or Chota Kailash 15,510 feet, 3 days walk from Kali Ganga
Kinnaur Kailash 6050 metres sacred by both Hindu and Buddhist Kinnauris.
Shrikant Mahadev Kailash 120 km dangerous trek over glaciers from Rampur in HP. The Shiva linga is an 80-feet sheer rock face jutting out from the middle of a glacier at an altitude of 21,700 feet above sea level.
Kailash Peak in Gangotri region.
Neelknath Peak near Badrinath.
Meru Peak 6,660 m 30°52′5″N 79°1′56″E
Om Parvat 6,191 m
Shivling - Gangotri Group 6,543 m near Gaumukh-source of Ganga.
Kedarnath 6,940 m (30.7352° N, 79.0669)
Dhaulagiri Peak and Ganesh Himal Peak in Nepal.