Three debts are akin to the three mortgages on one’s life. The first debt is to God and the repayment requires regular prayers and worship, and selfless service to all of God’s creatures.
The second debt is to the sages and saints, who have revealed truths in scriptures. The repayment of this debt arises from service to the needy, handicapped, sick and poor, and less fortunate.
The third debt is to one’s ancestors, parents and teachers. The repayment of this debt means raising one’s family in accordance with the moral and ethical principles of dharma.
Karmas (or rituals) to be performed daily is different for different people.
The Karmas are broadly classified into five types as follows:
1) Nitya Karma – Daily Obligatory Duties
2) Naimittika Karma --Occasional Obligatory duties
3) Kamya Karma – Rites done to attain desired results like Jyotistoma Yaga for reaching Heaven
4) Prayaschitta Karma – Rites for expiation of sins like Candrayana Vrata
5) Nishiddha Karma – Forbidden action like killing, drinking etc
(i) Nitya Karmas:
Nitya Karmas representing the Daily Obligatory Duties for a Grhastha (householder) includes the following:
1) Pratah Sandhya Vandanam (Morning)
2) Samitadanam ( For Brahmachari)
4) Agnihotram (For Agnihotris)
5) Agni Sandhanam
6) Deva-Rishi-Pitru Tarpanam
7) Brahma Yajnam,
8) Vaisva Devam
9) Bhagavad Aradhanam
10) Madhyanikam ( Afternoon)
11) Sayam Sandhya Vandanam (Evening)
12) Pratyabdika Sraddham ( Yearly Ceremony)
The non-performance of Nitya Karmas results in sins.
(ii) Naimittika Karmas:
"naimittikni - putrajanmdyanubandhni jteydni."
Jtei sacrifices (which are performed subsequent to the birth of a son) etc. are called the naimittika-karma or rites to be observed on special occasions [Vedntasra, 10]
Naimittika Karmas representing the rites to be performed on special occasions for a Grhastha (householder) mainly includes the following main 16 Samskaras (40 Samskaras are mentioned in the Scriptures) and other Pitru Karmas:
1) Garbhadana - Conception rite
2) Pumsavana – Rite before Birth
3) Simantonnaya- Rite before Birth
4) Jatakarma – At Birth
5) Namakaranam – Naming ceremony
6) Niskramana – First Outing of the baby and viewing the Sun
7) Karna Vedana – Ear Piercing rite
8) Annaprasana – Feeding
9) Chaula – Tonsure
10) Vidyarambha – Beginning of Studies
11) Upanayan – Sacred Thread
12) Vedarambha – Beginning of Study of Vedas
13) Keshantha – Shaving of Beard
14) Samvartana – Completion of Studies
15) Vivaha – Marriage
16) Anthyeshti – Death
1) Preta Sraddham
3) Sankramana Sraddham ( Monthly)
4) Grahana Sraddham ( Solar / Lunar Eclipse)
6) Nandi Sraddham
1) Upakarma (Avani Avittam)
2) Gayathri Japam
The non-performance of Naimittika Karmas results in sins.
(iii) Kaamya Karmas:
Kaamya karmas refer to those Karmas (or rituals) in Hinduism which are performed with a specific objective in view. Unlike Nitya karmas, these rituals are not required by the Shastras to be performed on a daily or regular basis, but these may be performed only for acquiring some desire. A few kaamya-karmas are listed below:
(iv) Nishiddha Karma:
Nishiddha Karma are heinous acts (declared as immoral).
(v) Prayaschitha Karma;
Prayaschitha Karma is one when one repents for his actions.
Living quarters at a temple or holy place. It also refers to a remote hermitage of a saintly person or sage. An ashram is usually a very peaceful and tranquil place, making it a perfect place to meditate on God. Another meaning has to do with the four spiritual orders of life according to the Vedic social system. This includes brahmacarya (student life), grihastha (married life), vanaprastha (retired life), and sannyasa (renounced order).