Kala (Time) is like an arrow speeding from past to future. Related to Rhythm or universal order, time is connected to Siva, who is called Maha Kala. Kali, his consort personifies the energy aspect of time. Shiva’s personalised forms represent the timeless, formless, imperishable lingam (half sphere) or jyoti (light/energy)
Day from prana
One respiration is a prana. Six prana equal one vinadi. Sixty vinadis equal one nadi, (also known as a ghatika). Sixty nadis equal one sidereal day.
one sidereal day = sixty nadis = 23h 56m 03.4446s
one nadi (ghatika) = 60 vinadi = 23m 56.06s
vinadi = 23.93s
one prana = 3.99s
Vedic Six and Sexagesimal system
A day into 60 equal parts called ghatikas. (means little jar or water clocks )
A ghatika is further divided into 60 vinadikas.
60 days = I rithu or season
1 year = 6 rithus or seasons
60 years cycle of Jupiter and Saturn to align.
The Vedic Indians had a six‐day week and 60 weeks per year.
The Vedic Indians had a six‐day week.
The ancient Egyptians had a ten‐day week.
The ancient Babylonians who started the month on the day after the new moon, had the first, eighth, fifteenth and the twenty second day marked out for religious services. This was a kind of seven‐day week with sabbaths, but the last week might be of eight or nine days duration, according as the month, which was lunar, had a length of 29 or 30 days.
The ancient Iranians had a separate name for each day of the month, but some days, at intervals of approximately seven, were marked out as Din‐i-Parvan, for religious practices. The pattern followed appears to have been similar to the Babylonian practice.
The continuous seven‐day week was evolved on astrological grounds by unnamed Chaldean astronomers, long before the first century AD. Every one adopted it.
- The Kaliyuga calendar is apparently much older than the other surviving old calendars. The current Kali Yuga began after the Surya Siddhanta at midnight on a change of 17 at 18 February in the year 3102 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar.
- Tamil calendar System follows Solar year calendar system i.e., the time taken for one revolution of the Earth around the sun, or the mean time taken by the sun to return to the same position relative to the background of the fixed stars in the sky. Solar year is divided into 12 lunar months in accordance with the successive entrances of the sun into the signs of the zodiac, making the months to vary its length from 29 to 32 days.
- Telugu and kannada Calendar use 'Luni-Solar Calendar' and a year will have 12 or 13 months.
One full Moon to the next full Moon is approxiimateluy 29.5 solar days which is equal to 30 tithi or lunar days. The tithi could begin at any time of a solar day so tithi that prevailed at sunrise is the tithi for the current day. The year consisted of twelve months, of 30 tithi each and was 360 tithi long. Three hundred sixty tithi is only 354 solar days and the solar year is 365.25 solar days thus every second or third year an extra month was added. It is interesting to note that a 360 tithi long year makes use of the very convenient number 360.
- The seven day week was also introduced with the name of the day being the name of the planet which precides over the days as in the Greco-Roman system. In fact the order of the planets is the same as in the Greco-Roman system, a vestige of the ordering by ancient Babylonians.
- Saaurya Maana or Solar Year : It consists of 12 months from Mesham to Meenam . Each month starts with Suns movement through the corresponding raasi starting with about April 13 or 14. It has about 365.24 days in a year.
- Saavan Maana : This year consists of 12 months of 30 days each and has 360 days.
- Nakshatra Manaana: Each month consists of movement of moon in the Nakshatras from Aswani to Revati. Twelve such months make a year with about 324 days.
- Baahraspatya Maana : Ths is based on movement of Guru or Jupiter in different signs and is about 361 days duration. This has to do with kumbha mela functions of different rivers .
Cyclic Nature of Time - Yugas
Time neither has a beginning nor an end. It is cyclic, as all physical phenomena, are repetitive, cyclic, and follow a definite time duration. Yugas means alignment of planets and/or stars and/or their apogees and perigees.
- Brhaspati Yugas: 12 years - Surya, Chandra, Tishya (Pushya or Cancri, in the Cancer), Brhaspati are aligned in Kumbha
- Brhaspati Yugas: 60 years variant : (Surya, Chandra, Pushya, Brihaspati plus Sani) - 60 year Jovian cycle/ 360 year ‘divine cycle
- SaptaRishi Yuga : The Ursa Major, seven stars known as the Big Dipper (or the Plough or seven sages) traces a circuit in the sky around the North Pole of the earth. Ursa Major passes through each of these nakshatras in 100 years, and completes a single rotation in 2,700 years..
- Romaka Siddhantam : 2850 years
- The precession of the equinoxes was taken as 27,000 years in some scriptures. Zodiacal Year of 25,920 common years, would match a human cycle of four ages.
- The earth wobbles in space so that its tilt changes between about 22 and 25 degrees on a cycle of about 41,000 years.
- The earth's orbit around the sun is not circular, but elliptic. The closest approach of the earth to the sun is called perihelion, and it now occurs in January. This change in timing of perihelion and occurs on a period of 22,000 years. 11,000 years ago, perihelion occurred in July, making the seasons more severe than today. The "roundness", or eccentricity, of the earth's orbit varies on cycles of 100,000 and 400,000 years, and this affects how important the timing of perihelion is to the strength of the seasons. The combination of the 41,000 year tilt cycle and the 22,000 year precession cycles, plus the smaller eccentricity signal, affect the relative severity.
MahAyuga – from Puranas
- Precessional year or the time taken for one cycle of precession to complete= 25920 years. 60 degrees of this precessional circle is covered in 4320 years (*100 gives the mahAyuga of the hindus).
- Four yugas are equivalent to twelve thousand years of the deities (12,000*360)
- Poorva Surya Siddhantham : 180,000 years or 1,800,000 years.
- Surya Siddhantam works with a lesser figure of 4,200,000 years only, which has 100 equal parts of 42000 years each.
- Naveena Siddhanthams : 4,320,000 years: (4:3:2:1 Ratio for Kruta, Treta, Dwapara and Kali).
- Aryabhatiyam: 4,320,000 years (1:1:1:1 Ratio for Yugapadas by name)
- Berossus, the priest of Marduk of Babylonians noted in the 3rd century BC that 432,000 solar years was the time that had elapsed from the origin of divine kingship to the end of the world, the planets would conjunct in Capricorn.
Some mythological figures:
1 pithru (ancestor) Day = 1 lunar month
1 Deity Day (day and night) = 1 year
1 Deity Year = 360 earthly years
1 Chatur yuga = 4,320,000 years
1 Manvantara = 71 Chaturyugas = 306,720,000
A Brahma's day = 1000 Chatur yugas = 4,320,000,000 years = 14 Manvantara
1 Brahma Day (day and night) = 2 Kalpa
Note: These figures are related to few constants, 12, 108 and 360