Buddhism is fundamental teachings on the nature of reality. Fourth-largest religion in the world with several branches (or schools), including Theravada and Mahayana.
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Vishak Purnima stands for enlightenment. Nirvana is peace or shanthi.
Objective is to attain nirvana and freedom from the cycle of birth and death.
Buddha is a title, not a name. It was also believed that Gautama Buddha did not announce a new religion. His movement was reformation of existing practices of some sects, he came across.
During Buddha time, there was no Hinduism or even concept of religion. There were many sects and preachers/teachers in India.
He gave up his royal wealth and never owned anything for himself.
Buddha is a title, not a name. Gautama Buddha was a unique teacher with valuable message:
1) I am just a human being nothing more, nothing less.
2) I am awakened (or enlightened). Every one is capable of enlightenment.
3) Do not worship me, just remember my teachings.
4) Do not take anything for granted (including my teachings). You do your own home work and believe in YOURSELF.
5) Morality/Ethics are more important than metaphysics.
Salutations to buddha
புத்தம் சரணம் கச்சாமி | தர்மம் சரணம் கச்சாமி | சங்கம் சரணம் கச்சாமி
Respects to Buddha (saints and enlightened ones), Dharma (cosmic order or duty.) and Sangha (spiritual community promoting order)
(1) ஓம் அஹிம்சசொரூபாய வித்மஹே தத்துவ புருஷாய தீமஹி தந்நோ பௌத்த ப்ரசோதயாத்
Salutations to buddha (awakened one), form of ahimsa or compassion and great philosopher
(2) ஓம் ராஜமூர்த்தியாய வித்மஹே சித்தர்த்தாயா தீமஹி தந்நோ ஞானகுரு ப்ரசோதயாத்
Salutations to royal (king) Siddhartha, a great teacher of wisdom
(3) ஓம் தர்மமார்காய வித்மஹே சூனியதத்வாய தீமஹி தந்நோ கௌதமபுத்த ப்ரசோதயாத்
Salutations to Gauthama buddha, who preached shunyata or theory of Impermanence" (all objects are ever changing) and eight paths of dharma (
Right view; Intention; Effort; Speech; Action; Livelihood; Mind/ Mindfulness; and thoughts/Concentration)
Buddhism comes from the word budhi which means 'to wake up' and thus Buddhism can be said to be the just philosophy of awakening. The words philo, which means ‘love’, and sophia which means 'wisdom’. So philosophy is the love of wisdom, or love and wisdom. Vishak Purnima stands for enlightenment.
Uniqueness of Buddhism
- Buddha stressed on equality and crusade against the bloody and costly sacrifices and ritualism attracted the oppressed in large numbers. The revivalists understood the need to appropriate some of these finer aspects of Buddhism to win over the masses.
- The Buddha teaches, “A good ruler is delighted in righteousness, a good person is endowed with wisdom, a good friend does not betray his friends and happiness is achieved by not doing evil.”
- Buddhism emphasizes the importance of the scientific outlook in dealing with the problems of morality and religions. It encourages to discard heresies, blind faith, miracles and magic.
- Karma (intentional action) is not predestination imposed on us by any one or creator. The karma or deed may be mental, oral or physical. Buddha reinforced karma is what is keeping the cycle of births and deaths. Action due to desire leads to bondage and suffering. Action without selfish desire, leads to liberation from the karmic cycle.
- Buddhism is a cosmic religion and transcend a personal God and avoid dogmas and theology. Concepts are based on the experiences of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. [Einstein]
Brief on buddha
Born into a India royal family in 563 BC, eventually found that worldly comforts and security do not guarantee happiness. Siddhartha was deeply moved by the suffering he saw all around and resolved to find the key to human happiness. Eventually, after six years study, struggle and meditation he could come out with message for fellow men. From that day onwards he was called the Buddha, the Awakened One. He lived for another 45 years teaching others what he had discovered. His compassion and patience were legendary.
Buddha, a transformer
- Buddha appeared to be less of a critic and more of a transformer.
Buddha does not engage in argumentative discourse. He asked some deep, probing questions to understand the mind of the person he was speaking with, then issued a teaching appropriate for that mind, at that time, at that place.
- Buddha worked towards the path to the cessation of suffering (humanist). He believed that clinging to an ideology is dangerous and even the teachings of the Buddha should be wholly abandoned if it leads one to impart suffering on others or self.
- Buddha made it clear that each person is responsible for his/her own path. He appointed no successors. He suggested the path, that ultimately leads to well-being, and a life of loving kindess.
- Buddha rejected himsa (harming anyone including animals) and animal sacrifices.
- Buddha did not form any religion. He just started the institution of monastries (Sangam), to develop monks.
Middle way, a philosophy of compromise and moderation
Buddha tried extreme fasting and got so thin. In the end, he rejected all these crazy extremes because they just didn’t work. Similarly he tried many extreme methods to find out solution to suffering. Finally, he chose middle path or middle way, a philosophy of compromise and moderation. He figured out what worked and what didn’t. If something didnot work, he had courage to acknowledge and reject it and moved on. When Buddha started teaching, he advised his students to do the same. He didn’t ask anyone to take his instructions blindly. Guru can only show the way and give his experience. He wanted us to check for ourselves and find solutions.
Buddha did not give a mystical or supernatural explanation for any odd observation. He realized that the truth is rarely found in the extremes. He practiced instead the “ observe yourself as you eat to see what works for you and what doesn’t.
Buddha realized that instead of roaming in the forest for enlightenment, he should practice of Yoga & Meditation to control the temptation. Ego, Anger, Greed, Lust & Attachment, are the causes of human's pain & Suffering.
Tolerance and compassion
Buddhism was started with boundless tolerance and compassion. The Buddha imbued the robber Angulimala’s mind with metta (universal love) and the robber was converted into a spiritual wayfarer. The priest class, who were once voracious meat eaters, turned vegetarian. He preached compassion and non violence towards all living beings. He promoted spiritual practices like meditation, concentration, and service.
Impermanence - shunyata
Buddha’s silence on the issue of the existence of God made him an atheist. But atheism should refer to non believers in the existence of either God or soul or any ultimate reality.
Many teachers have used concepts such as: "Impermanence" (to be ever changing) or "Maya" - illusory and not real. Some scholars have discounted the Buddha’s teachings, claiming that he is promulgating a belief in "emptiness" or "nothingness." However, teachings about shunyata (emptiness) are not only found in Buddhist literature, but are also prominent in the writings of many of the saints. "It (God) is neither existent nor non-existent (shunya), its nature is beyond the reach of senses and thought." [Gorakh Nath] "Meditation on the Formless (shunya) is enjoyed by all knowers of Truth." [Sant Kabir]
Buddhism by the Numbers
- 3 Jewels of Refuge are: Buddha; Dharma (the teachings); and Sangha (the Buddhist community)
- 3 higher trainings are: Morality; Concentration; Wisdom
- 4 Noble Truths: (1) life is painful because nothing in this material world is permanent or reliable; (2) suffering is caused by desire (craving), attachment, and ignorance; (3) there is a state beyond suffering called nirvana; and (4) nirvana is reached by following the eight-fold path.
- 5 aggregates (skandhas) are: Form; Feeling; Recognition; (Mental) formations; and
- 6 Mahayana perfections are: Generosity (giving); Moral discipline (ethics); Patience;
Effort and energy; Meditative concentration; and Wisdom.
- 8-fold path is Right view; intention; speech; action; livelihood; effort; mindfulness; and concentration
- 10 Theravada perfections are: Generosity; Moral discipline; Patience; Effort; Meditative concentration; Wisdom; Renunciation; Truthfulness; Loving-kindness; and Equanimity
- 10 non-virtuous actions are: Killing; Stealing; Sexual misconduct; Lying; Divisive speech; Harsh speech; Idle gossip; Craving; Aversion; and Delusion
Major schools of thought
Theravada (doctrine of the elders) or Hinayana ("lesser vehicle") school of thought, avoids Buddha's form as a human, but prefers symbolism-footprints, the wheel of life, the bodhi tree under which he sat to attain enlightenment, an elephant (his mother saw an elephant in a dream before he was born), and stupas.
Mahayana ("greater vehicle") Buddhism, in which statues and pictures of Buddha are shown, became popular around 100 AD.
Hinayana followers say that the path to nirvana is an individual quest. Mahayana followers believe that everyone can attain nirvana, and they aspire to reach the state of Buddhahood not for themselves, but also help other living entities.
Vajrayana means "thunderbolt" or "diamond" vehicle contains tantric and shamanistic practices.
Zen begins in China and spreads to Japan and elsewhere. It focuses on specific meditative approaches to the path of enlightenment. Pure Land is prominent in Japan and focuses on the reverence of Buddha Amida, or the Buddha of "boundless light."
The teachings continued to be transmitted orally until written around first century BCE. The sacred texts of Buddhism are broken down into three sections known as Tripitaka or Three Baskets.
1) Vinaya Pitaka focuses on the rules and regulations, or the morals and ethics, of monastic life that range from dress code and dietary rules to prohibitions of certain personal conducts.
2) Sutra Pitaka. Sutras were the doctrinal teachings in aphoristic or narrative format.
3) Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Buddhism important places
There are four important places connected with Buddha's life: his birth site in Lumbini, Nepal; the site of his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, Bihar; the site of his first sermon in Sarnath, near Varanasi; and the place of his death in Kushinagar, UP. When Buddha died, his body was cremated and the ashes given to people to whom he had preached.
At Rajgir, Buddha converted King Bimbisara to Buddhism, and the First Buddhist Council was held there. At Vaishali, Buddha preached his last sermon and announced his approaching nirvana. At Nalanda are the remains of an ancient Buddhist University. These three places are all in Bihar near Patna. Other places in India are famous Buddhist places because of monuments, temples, or cave temples built there. The finest of these are at Ajanta and Ellora in Maharashtra, Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh, and Amaravati in Andhra Pradesh.
Timeline of Buddhist History
Buddhism is fundamental teachings on the nature of reality. Fourth-largest religion in the world with several branches (or schools), including Theravada and Mahayana.
- 5th Century BCE: Life of Shakyamuni Buddha, based on whose teachings Buddhism developed.
- 269-231 BCE: Reign of King Ashoka, patron of Buddhism; sends first Buddhists to Sri Lanka in the third century.
- First half of 2nd century CE: Reign of King Kanishka; Mahayana Buddhism spreads to Central Asia. Kanishka of Kushans (Mongolians or closely allied to them) promoted Buddhist learning.
- Harshavardhana, Bhaskaravarman and Dhuvabhatti involved all belief systems in religious discourses.
- 520: First Zen patriarch Bodhidharma arrives in China and Buddhism enters Japan from Korea.
- 7th to 8th century: Vajrayana Buddhism established in Tibet.
- 11th to 14th century: Theravada Buddhism established in Southeast Asia.
- 1199: Nalanda University destroyed.
- 13th century: Zen, Pure Land, and Nichiren Buddhism established in Japan.
- During Buddha time, there was no Hinduism or even concept of religion. There were many large number of sects in India, like Charvaka, ajvika, Sramana, mimasika, saivites, vaishnavas, shakthas, sun worshippers, animists... Later Persians and Greeks gave the name as Hindu to refer to various religious sects east of river Indus. Buddha did not form any sect or new group. He was just a spiritual teacher or master. Are his followers also hindus?
- After Gautama passed away, the community he founded slowly evolved into a religion-like movement and became the basis of Buddhism. Buddhism had a humble beginning and was a relatively minor tradition in India. Later with emperors like Ashoka, it became a popular movement and spread to other countries/continents.
- Buddha (means “Awakened One”) refers to any great personality of wisdom. Gautama Buddha also got the title.
- Buddha's teachings are: The Dharma, the precepts, the practice, the Four Truths, the Eightfold Path. None conflicts with other hindu scriptures.
- Gautama Buddha avoided wasteful discussion/arguments on topics which can not be proven or rejected. Vedic scholars have discussed with Buddha their views on Brahman and the Union with Brahman (Sayujya Moksha) and need for elaborate rituals. So far no teacher or Rishis of the Vedas have understood/encountered Brahman and vouched for it. So this path cannot be proven or validated. The path to merge with Brahman is compassion, sincerity, patience, peace, ahimsa, truth, honesty, modesty and tolerance. [Kapila-go-samvada — Shanti Parva].
- Karma and rebirth forms the basis in explaining many phenomena and used in many stories/illustrations.
- அன்பும் சிவமும் இரண்டென்பர் அறிவிலார் |
அன்பே சிவமாவது யாரும் அறிகிலார் - திருமந்திரம்
Only the ignorant will think that love and Sivan are two different things; only few really understand that Sivan is nothing but love; One attains Union with Brahman by cultivating compassion, sympathy, equanimity etc. This was the view of Gautama Buddha also, who was against animal sacrifices and stressed compassion.
- He is against wasting resources in many rituals. Suggested middle way, avoiding extreme practices. Stress is on duty (karma marga) and wisdom/understanding (jnana marga)
- Buddhist meditation, and practice of staying in the present moment, is beyond religion. Buddha encouraged people to find their own truth and this opens our hearts to the experiences of ours and others. We are all connected and Our interconnectedness is one of his core teachings.
- There is no certifying body who gives Buddhist membership cards. Taking the refuges involves saying that one takes refuge in the Buddha (the idea of an enlightened human), the Dharma (moral/ethical code), and the Sangha (community of practitioners or company of like minded).
- There were few extremists like Shashanka king of Bengal, Toramana, Mihirakula and Pushyamitra who destroyed objects like Bodhi tree and destruction of Buddhist images and monasteries. Even bodhi tree in Gaya was destroyed and Buddha statue went underground to become Gaya asura. There were instigators like Kumarila. Buildings and all work of treasure including valuable knowledge at Nagarjuna Konda were destroyed. Nalanda University, one of the greatest universities in the world was completely destroyed in 12th century by Bakhtiyar Khilji.
- In India, some fanatical kings have converted Brahma temples (along with Buddha/Jaina) to worship other gods. Scholars to please the fanatics created stories discrediting Buddha/Brahma etc and removed them from scriptures. Lot of valuable scriptures have been destroyed.
- Buddhism lost its top position in India, because of corruption and moral issues with few monks. Pallava king Mahendravarman has written some stories/plays on this.
[From http://www.kamakoti.org/hindudharma/part12/chap3.htm] Many believe that Buddhism ceased to have a large following in India because it came under the attack of Sankara. This is not true. There are very few passages in the Acarya's commentaries critical of that religion, a religion that was opposed to the Vedas. Far more forcefully has he criticised the doctrines of Sankhya and Mimamsa that respect the Vedic tradition. ......Then how did Buddhism cease to have a considerable following in out country? Udayanacarya, the tarkika, and Kumarilabhatta, the mimamsaka, opposed Buddhism for different reasons.... They attacked Buddhism for its refusal to accept Vedic rituals.
Buddhist Ideas and practices absorbed by Hinduism
- For all practical purposes, Buddhism can be considered as one of sects of Hinduism. Buddha like other saints reformed some of the Hindu practices.
- Buddha and many saints are accepted as gurus. Lord Buddha is considered as one of the ten major incarnations of Lord Vishnu by some.
- The mini dheivams and village angels of buddhism were absorbed as Hindu deities.
- The animal sacrifice was abandoned and priests and scholars converted themselves to vegetarians
- Monastries were established following such practice by Buddhists
- Soonyavadha became Mayavadha
- Buddhist Jataka tales and epics became part of religious stories.
- Buddhists teach about the law of karma in which our actions in this life determine our next birth. This was a very old concept, popular in many parts of ancient India
Prior to Gupta Era, royal people were influenced by buddhist and Jain monks. From Gupta Era, Shaivam and Vaishnavam were revived. 12th century, the biggest library at Nalanda was destroyed by invasions. Some idols were converted as gods of their faiths. Gaya Asura, may be an earlier Buddha statue, below Vishnupada. Kushinara Rambhar Bhavani, Sal Kusa Madhava, Puri Jagannatha, Gaya Vishnupada temple, Annapoorni (earlier Manimegala) have Buddhist history.
Nagarjuna, from Nagarjunakonda (around 200 C.E.) was one of the earliest significant Buddhist thinkers to write in the Sanskrit language rather than in the Pali script.
Supported the Madhyamaka (Middle Way) school of Buddhism and credited with writing the the doctrine of emptiness and to propose the two-truths doctrine. Shunyata, has multiple meanings emptiness, voidness, openness, changing, depending context.
Nagarjuna is often misunderstood as a nihilist due to his radical rejection of "self." For Buddha and Nagarjuna, Samsara is not an illusion/maya but like an illusion (mayavat). People are already connected at all levels (i.e., matter, mind, and spirit) through interdependence.
Wisdom Sutras, have good material on the nature of our reality. The body/mind is simply a vehicle by which we experience this world. We return to oneness after death.
Nothing is fixed.
What have not taught are far more numerous than what have been taught.
Human consciousness had begun as a ripple that decided to leave the ocean of consciousness (which is timeless, spaceless and eternal). Humans forgot that they were part of the infinite ocean.
There appears to be an abundance of injustice/suffering and also compassion/beauty in our world.
Siddhartha vs Yashodhara
In a scene from Tibetan motion picture “Samsara”, a high Lama Tashi left the monastery to marry and father a son. Tashi has unwittingly recreated the moment when Gautama Buddha left his wife Yashodhara and his son Rahul. His wife Pema has ridden ahead of him and met him at the outskirts of the monastery. She asks questions which every one should ask. Only a man could have made the choice, when he left his family in the night without a word. No woman can walk away from their child. All scriptures are silent on this.
Pema asks: Was Yashodhara broken hearted when Siddhartha left her so cruelly? Did she feel anger or dispair? And what did she tell their son Rahul when he got older? How did she explain to a young man a father’s choices such as Prince Siddhartha made? Mother can not desert, but father can!
Scriptures discuss about how Gautama suffered from having to make such a cold decision, his Family in exchange for enlightenment. But silent on the subject of Yashodhara’s much greater suffering. Yashodhara was a deeply compassionate and even saintly person, always engaged in acts of charity with the most disenfranchised while Gautama was unaware of suffering.
Does one need to abandon their duty to achieve enlightenment?
Later Indian scriptures highlighted the importance of duty and greatness of grahastha (married life supporting the society). In Indian marriages, there will be a ceremony called Kasiyatra, to discourage people from becoming monks, but serve society as responsible family men.
Points to think
- Buddhism today is an amalgamation of selected teachings of many teachers, combined with myths and culture from many countries.
- Life Is Suffering is seeing the glass half empty rather than half full. Life can be an enjoyable adventure or journey
- All Suffering Is Caused By Ignorance and also human made. Much suffering is caused by poverty, accidents, disease, and countless other factors that can be addressed by the positive application of science and social reforms.
- Easy to say Right Views, Intention... so on? What is right is highly subjective and personal.
- Monks are divorced from the world that works, creates wealth, and continues the human race.
- Buddha said that life exists as constant change, but many leaders want religion to remain fixed and dead like a rock.
Some thoughts on Buddhism
Who is a Buddhist? There is no certifying body who checks people's Buddhist membership cards. Further, since one of the central teachings of Buddhism is that there is no identifiable "self", taking on an identity of being a Buddhist (having a Buddhist self) is antithetical.
Buddhism is a technology for mindfulness. First is an appreciation of the present moment. One can be distracted from our immediate life by worry, anger, regrets, doubts, living in past memories, etc.
anṛśam kṣamā śāntir ahimsa satyam ārjavam | adroho nābhimānaśca hrīs-titikṣa śamas tathā | panthāno brahmaṇastvete |
The path to merge with Brahman is sincerity, patience, peace, non-injury, truth, honesty, non-malice, non-arrogance, modesty, tolerance and tranquillity (Kapila-go-samvāda — Shanti Parva).
The primary purpose of food was to keep the body alive, healthy, and strong. We keep ourselves healthy to reduce life’s suffering and to not to be dependent.
The first precept in Buddhism is to refrain from killing. The Buddha saw defensive war as a sad necessity.
Monks begged for food and provided teaching on the Way in return for donations of food. This included walking through villages with begging bowls and taking the food back to share, while offering guidance, advice, teachings, and blessings.
Some Buddhists are strict vegetarians when it comes to not eating meat, and this is likely to include not eating eggs, as well. Eating dairy is rare because it is not part of an Oriental diet. The notion of being vegan is much closer to Jainism and certain yogic traditions than it is to Buddhism. It is good not to get involved in the lives and choices of others. Let’s focus on making wise choices each ourselves!
Gautama Buddha and Other Saints
There were many Bodhisattvas like: Vyasa; Kapila; Jadabharta; Hermes; Orpheus before Siddhartha who became Buddha. Buddha literally means the Enlightened One. Gautama Buddha has stated that, there have been countless Buddhas in the past and can expect many in future. Attainment of perfection/buddha hood is the birthright of the every human.
Later saints came to correct certain effects of the people following Buddhist way of leaving their families and becoming monks in hundreds of thousands. It is to correct the anomalies of people blindly becoming monks, neglecting family life.
Shunyatta is explained as a state of equilibrium of both the positive as well as negative in equal measures. It is also described as the "Fullness of the Void" and the "Emptiness of the Full".
The impermanence of this world, made Siddhartha to search for right knowledge. Life seemed a paradox to him. All creatures hug life and would like to have it extended to infinity if possible. But they are all unwittingly racing towards the end called death.
All Indian religious sects including Buddhism agree on:
Life is filled with anguish and discontent
Ddukha) is caused by craving, clutching or attachment.
Love/compassion with out attachment or expectations is a way to liberate oneself from suffering.
The doctrines of Karma and Rebirth.
Buddha preached the impersonal doctrines known as Panchasila – five doctrines. Lord Buddha’s teaching comprise the moral and spiritual laws that govern life. His realization was that all lives are equally sacred. The notion that one life is superior to another is born of ignorance.
Alleviate pain by all possible means and should in no way add to it. Avoid becoming a slave to desire/craving. All who wants to live must learn to let live.
The last doctrine is in regard to right livelihood. Right thinking necessarily leads to right career. Ability to distinguish between good and bad, between permanent and impermanent is known as right thinking. The individual welfare is dependent on the general welfare is right thought.
One should earn one’s living by noble and upright means. Life lived by exploiting other ultimately leads to grief.
Humans (living beings) may come and go, but the laws that govern life persist for ever.
Gouthama Buddha did his meditation sitting under a sacred fig or peepal tree. As buddha attained enlightenment under it, it is named as Bodhi(High Spiritual Knowledge) tree.
The Sri Maha Bodhi tree in Sri Lanka is said to the oldest and longest-surviving tree in the world. It was planted in 288 BC during the reign of King Devanampiyatissa, and brought from India by Princess Sangamitta. It is considered to be the oldest specimen of a tree that has been regenerated for over 2,000 years.
Unknown miscreants have cut off a branch of a 110 year old holy tree in Bodh Gaya, where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment. In 254 BC, Tissarakkha, Ashoka's queen, destroyed the original Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, as she did not favour Ashoka embracing Buddhism. The tree was again cut down by King Pushyamitra Shunga in the 2nd century BC, and by King Shashanka in 600 AD. (Records of Chinese traveler)
Divine beings or Deities
Buddhism may lack a god/supreme deity. But has a wide array of divine beings that are venerated figures such as devas, asuras and yakshas, other Asian spirits and local gods. Buddhists later also came to incorporate aspects from the countries to which it spread. As such, it includes many aspects taken from other mythologies of those cultures.
Mahayana and Vajrayana traditions also recognize five primary Buddhas: Vairocana, Aksobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitābha, and Amoghasiddhi. Each is associated with a different consort, direction, aggregate (or, aspect of the personality), emotion, element, color, symbol, and mount.
There are many Buddhas like, Bhaisajyaguru (the Buddha of medicine), Nageshvara Raja (the king of the Nāgas), Adi-Buddha, the "first Buddha" named as Vajradhara, Samantabhadra and Vairocana. The first Buddha is also associated with the concept of Dharmakaya. Some historical figures are also seen as Buddhas, such as the Buddhist philosopher Nagarjuna and Padmasambhava.
Several female Buddhas are also recognized, such as Tarain Tibetan Buddhism, who comes in many forms and colors. Other female Buddha figures include Vajrayogini, Nairatmya, and Kurukullā. Major bodhisattvas include: Guanyin, Maitreya, Samantabhadra, Manjushri, Ksitigarbha, Mahasthamaprapta, Vajrapani and Akasagarbha. Others bodhisattvas include Candraprabha, Suryaprabha, Bhaiṣajyasamudgata, Bhaiṣajyarāja, Akṣayamati, Sarvanivāraṇaviṣkambhin and Vajrasattva.
In Tibetan Buddhism, a Vajrayana Buddhist tradition, the major bodhisattvas are known as the "eight great bodhisattvas": Ksitigarbha, Vajrapani, Akasagarbha, Avalokitesvara, Maitreya, Sarvanivāraṇaviṣkambhin, Samantabhadra and Manjushri. Female Bodhisattvas include Vasudhara and Cundi. Some consider Dalai Lamas and the Karmapas to be emanations of bodhisattvas.
The most popular bodhisattva in the East Asian pantheon is Guanyin (the East Asian form of the Indian Avalokitesvara), who is also believed by Buddhists to take on numerous manifestations, among which are several other bodhisattvas such as Cundi and Cintamanicakra. In addition, Buddhist traditions in different countries have also absorbed native deities into their localized Buddhist pantheon, sometimes as Bodhisattvas. Some examples are Guan Yu in Chinese Buddhism, and Hachiman in Japanese Buddhism.
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