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Kala or Time

Kala (Time) is like an arrow speeding from past to future. Related to Rhythm or universal order, time is connected to Shiva. Kali, his consort personifies the energy aspect of time. Shiva’s personalised forms represent the timeless, formless, imperishable lingam or jyoti (light/energy)

Six and Sexagesimal system

A day into 60 equal parts called ghatikas. (means little jar or water clocks )

A ghatika is further divided into 60 vinadikas.
Six prana or respiration is equal to one vinadi (23.93s).
Sixty vinadis equal one nadi or nazhi (also known as a ghatika =23m 56.06s).
one sidereal day = sixty nadis = 23h 56m 03.4446s
60 days = I rithu or season
1 year = 6 rithus or seasons
60 years cycle of Jupiter and Saturn to align

Ancient Indians had a six‐day week and 60 weeks per year.


The seven day week was also introduced in India with the name of the day being the name of the planet which presides over the days based on the size of planets as seen from earth. This is similar to Greco-Roman system or ordering by ancient Babylonians.


Magic Numbers

  1. 60 has factors 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. It was used to divide a day in to nazhi and vinadis. Year is divided in to 6 seasons of 60days approx. 60 year cycles is used to name years.
  2. 108 has factors 2, 3, 4, 6, 9. No 108 is a Harshad number, which is an integer divisible by the sum of its digits
  3. 432 has factors 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9. Like 108, 432 is also a Harshad number. 432 was considered as magic number for astronomical calculations. 2160 and 4320 is exactly divisible by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12. (except 7 and 11). Also exactly divisible 18, 20, 30, 60 and 360 used in astronomical calculations.
    4320/7 = 617.142857142857 = 614+PI
    4320/11 = 392.727272 repets of 72
  4. Kalacakra calendar in use, 60 year cycle starting with Prabhava, is by Pandita Somanatha of Kashmir/Himalayas, in 367 CE. The earth's axis wobble that causes the precession of the equinoxes is approximately 25,920 years or 432 sixty year cycles.

Cyclic Nature of Time - Yugas

Time neither has a beginning nor an end, but endless cycle. Yugas means alignment of planets and/or stars and/or their apogees and perigees.
  1. Basic cycles is day for earth rotation, month for moon orbital time, and year for earth orbital time. One year divided in to 6 rithus or seasons
  2. Brhaspati Yugas: 12 years - Surya, Chandra, Brhaspati are aligned in Kumbha rashi. There is also 60 years variant.
  3. SaptaRishi Yuga : The Ursa Major, seven stars known as the Big Dipper (or the Plough or seven sages) traces a circuit in the sky around the North Pole of the earth. Ursa Major passes through each of these nakshatras in 100 years, and completes a single rotation in approx 2,700 years.
  4. Romaka Siddhantam : 2850 luni solar years
  5. The precession of the equinoxes was taken as 25,920 years (27,000 in some scriptures). This was also considered as one mahayuga. March equinox takes 2160 years to move feom one rasi to next. 4320 years for one rithu or 2 rasis (6 rithus make one maha yuga)
  6. The earth wobbles in space so that its tilt changes between about 22 and 25 degrees on a cycle of about 41,000 years.
  7. The earth's orbit around the sun is not circular, but elliptic. The closest approach of the earth to the sun is called perihelion, and it now occurs in January. This change in timing of perihelion and occurs on a period of 22,000 years. 11,000 years ago, perihelion occurred in July, making the seasons more severe than today. The "roundness", or eccentricity, of the earth's orbit varies on cycles of 100,000 and 400,000 years, and this affects how important the timing of perihelion is to the strength of the seasons. The combination of the 41,000 year tilt cycle and the 22,000 year precession cycles, plus the smaller eccentricity signal, affect the relative severity.
Planetary Alignment and Mahayugas Yuga starts when planets align in a straight line. Can a true alignment happen in our solar system because all of the planets orbit at varying angles? Their angular speed changes with time?
Exact Planetary Alignment may never happen. IT may be a myth.

Every century, planets take up positions in the night sky creating the impression of being in more or less a straight line.

The alignment of planets has generated superstitious beliefs throughout history. History shows that planetary alignments are harmless. On 5 Feb 1962 during a solar eclipse, an extremely rare grand conjunction of the classical planets occurred, after 1821. All 5 of the naked-eye planets plus the Sun and Moon, all of them within 16° of one another on the ecliptic. Saturn, Jupiter, Mars and Venus were on one side of the Sun, while Mercury and Earth were on the opposite side. All grahas aligned in capricorn rashi. When the Moon crossed between the Earth and the Sun, the eclipse was visible over India.

One calculation of two dimensional alignments within around thirty degrees (about as close as they can get) shows that the last such alignment was in 561 BC, and the next will be in 2854. However, they do make formations in our visible sky every year.

Precession year or the time taken for one cycle of precession to complete= 25920 years. 60 degrees (1/6th or 1 season) of this precession circle is covered in 4320 years. 432 is a magic number by astronomers.

Ancient astronomers tried to predict alignment of grahas using lowest common multiple of time of revolution of all grahas. Few are listed below:

Some mythological figures used in stories, based on above astronomical concepts: 1 pithru (ancestor) Day = 1 lunar month
1 Deity Day (day and night) = 1 year
1 Deity Year = 360 earthly years
1 Chatur yuga = 4,320,000 years
1 Manvantara = 71 Chaturyugas = 306,720,000 years
A Brahma's day or Kalpa = 1,000 (994?) Chatur yugas = 4.32 billion years = 14 Manvantara
1 Brahma Day (day and night) = 2 Kalpa
Note: These figures are related to few constants, 12, 108, 432 and 360

Brahma year = 2.11 trillion years. Brahma has completed 50 years and is in 51st year. After 100 Brahma years, new brahma is born and cycle continues.
The current measurement of the age of the universe is around 13.8 billion years

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