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Rashi (Zodiac)


Sun and Moon move along 12 constellations in Zodiac in one year and month respectively. Solar month is based on position of the sun in Zodiac.
360 degree movement is divided in to 12 signs 30 degree each.

Sanskrit NameWestern/Greek NameTattva (Element)QualityRuling PlanetPart of Body
(1)Meṣa (मेष) "ram"Aries ("ram")Tejas (Fire)Cara (Movable)Marshead
(2)Vṛṣabha (वृषभ) "bull"Taurus ("bull")Prithivi (Earth)Sthira (Fixed)Venusmouth
(3)Mithuna (मिथुन) "twins"Gemini ("twins")Vayu (Air)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Mercuryarms
(4)Karkaṭa (कर्कट) "crab"Cancer ("crab")Jala (Water)Cara (Movable)Moontwo sides
(5)Siṃha (सिंह) "lion"Leo ("lion")Tejas (Fire)Sthira (Fixed)Sunheart
(6)Kanyā (कन्या) "girl"Virgo ("virgin")Prithivi (Earth)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Mercurydigestive system
(7)Tulā (तुला) "balance"Libra ("balance")Vayu (Air)Cara (Movable)Venusumbilical area
(8)Vṛścika (वृश्चिक) "scorpion"Scorpio ("scorpion")Jala (Water)Sthira (Fixed)Marsgenerative organs
(9)Dhanus (धनुष) "bow"Sagittarius ("archer")Tejas (Fire)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Jupiterthighs
(10)Makara (मकर) "sea-monster"Capricorn ("goat-horned")Prithivi (Earth)Cara (Movable)Saturnknees
(11)Kumbha (कुम्भ) "pitcher"Aquarius ("water-pourer")Vayu (Air)Sthira (Fixed)SaturnLower part of legs
(12)Mīna (मीन) "fish"Pisces ("fish")Jala (Water)Dvisvabhava (Dual)Jupiterfeet

As per NASA there are 13 constellations in the original zodiac. Babylonians had a 12-month calendar, and to match it they left Ophiuchus out.

  1. Capricorn: January 20 - February 16
  2. Aquarius: February 16 – March 11
  3. Pisces: March 11 – April 18
  4. Aries: April 18 – May 13
  5. Taurus: May 13 – June 21
  6. Gemini: June 21 – July 20
  7. Cancer: July 20 – August 10
  8. Leo: August 10 – September 16
  9. Virgo: September 16 – October 30
  10. Libra: October 30 – November 23
  11. Scorpio: November 23 – November 29
  12. Ophiuchus: November 29 – December 17
  13. Sagittarius: December 17 – January 20

Nakshatra

Nakshatra may mean constellation, galaxies, group of stars and galaxies.
There is 27 or 28 nakshatra system. Currently 27 nakshatra system is popular in India.
360 degree rotation is divided in to 27 nakshatra signs 13 degree and 20 minutes each. Actual location or angle between two nakshatra signs varies (listed in table).

Nakshatra

Tamil nameNakshatraAssociated starsAstronomical Name (No. of stars)Indian zodiacSymbol
AsviniAshviniβ and γ ArietisBeta Arietis (3)0deg - 13deg20' MeshaHorse's head
BaraniBharaniArietis35 Arietis (3)13deg 20' - 26deg40' MeshaYoni
KarthikaiKrittikaPleiadesEta Tauri (6)26deg40' Mesha - 10deg VrishabhaKnife or spear
RohiniRohiniAldebaranAldebaran (5)10deg - 23deg20' VrishabhaCart, temple, banyan tree
MirugasirshamMrigashiaλ, φ OrionisLambda Orionis (3)23deg 20' Vrishabha - 6deg 40' MithunaDeer's head
ThiruvadiraiAridraBetelgeuseAlpha Orionis (1)6deg 40' - 20deg MithunaTeardrop, diamond, a human head
PunarpoosamPunarvasuCastor and PolluxBeta Geminorium (2 to 4)20deg Mithuna - 3deg20' KarkaBow and quiver
PoosamPushyaγ, δ and θ CancriDelta Cancri (3)3deg20' -16deg40' KarkaCow's udder, lotus, arrow and circle
AayilyamAsleshaδ, ε, η, ρ, and σ HydraeAlpha Hydroe (1)16deg40' - 30deg KarkaSerpent
MagamMaghaRegulusRegulus (5)0deg - 13deg20' SimhaRoyal Throne
PooramPurva Phalguniδ and θ LeonisDelta Leonis (2)13deg20' - 26deg40' SimhaFront legs of bed, hammock, fig tree
UttaramUttara PhalguniDenebolaBeta Leonis (2)26deg40' Simha- 10deg KanyaFour legs of bed, hammock
HasthamHastaα, β, γ, δ and ε CorviDelta Corvi (3)10deg - 23deg20' KanyaHand or fist
ChitiraiChitraSpicaSpica Virginis -Vegus (1)23deg20' Kanya - 6deg40' TulaBright jewel or pearl
SwatiSvatiArcturusArcturus (1)6deg40' - 20deg TulaShoot of plant, coral
VisakamVishakhaα, β, γ and ι LibraeAlpha Libroe (2)20deg Tula - 3deg20' VrishchikaTriumphal arch, potter's wheel
AnushamAnuradhaβ, δ and π ScorpionisDelta Scorpio (4)3deg20' - 16deg40' VrishchikaTriumphal archway, lotus
KettaiJyeshthaα, σ, and τ ScorpionisAntares (3)16deg40' - 30deg Vrishchikacircular amulet, umbrella, earring
MoolamMulaε, ζ, η, θ, ι, κ, λ, μ and ν ScorpionisLambda Scorpio (11)0deg - 13deg20' DhanusBunch of roots tied together, elephant goad
PooradamPurva Ashadhaδ and ε SagittariiDelta Sagittari (2)13deg20' - 26deg40' DhanusElephant tusk, fan, winnowing basket
UttaradamUttara Ashadhaζ and σ SagittariiSigma sagittari (3)26deg40' Dhanus - 10deg MakaraElephant tusk, small bed
Abhijitα, ε and ζ Lyrae - Vega
ThiruvonamShravanaα, β and γ AquilaeAlpha Aquiloe (3)10deg - 23deg20' MakaraEar or Three Footprints
AvittamDhanishthaα to δ DelphiniBeta Delphinum (4)23deg20' Makara - 6deg40' KumbhaDrum or flute
SadayamShatabhishaγ AquariiLambda Aquarius (100)6deg40' - 20deg Kumbha ;Empty circle, flowers or stars
PurattadhiPurva Bhadraα and β PegasiAlpha Pegasi (2)20deg Kumbha - 3deg20' Meena ;Swords or two front legs of cot, man with two faces
UttarattadhiUttaea Bhadraγ Pegasi and α AndromedaeGama Pegasi (2)3deg20' - 16deg40' Meena ;Twins, back legs of cot, snake in the water
RevathiRevatiζ PisciumZeta Piscum (32)16deg40' - 30deg MeenaPair of fish, drum

Each nakshatra is associated with deity and characteristics of personality and so on
NakshatraRulerDeityMeaningPurposeAnimalGana
AsviniKetuSaraswathi, Gods physicianswife of the AshvinsDharmaHorse MDeva
BaraniVenusDurgai, god of death or Dharmathe bearerArthaElephant MManushya
KarthikaiSunAgninurses of KārttikeyaKamaGoat FRakshasa
RohiniMoonBrahma or Prajapatithe red one, a name of Aldebaran, brāhmīMokshaSerpent MManushya
MirugasirshamMarsSoma, Chandrathe deer's head, āgrahāyaṇīMokshaSerpent FDeva
ThiruvadiraiRahuShiva or Rudra the storm godthe moist oneKamaDog MManushya
PunarpoosamJupiterAditi, mother of the gods(dual), two restorers of goods, the two chariotsArthaCat FDeva
PoosamSaturnBrihaspatithe nourisher, sidhyaDharmaRam MDeva
AayilyamMercuryAdhisesha or Nagasthe embraceDharmaCat MRakshasa
MagamKetuSukra or Pitrs family ancestorsthe bountifulArtharat MRakshasa
PooramVenusParvathy, god of marital bliss and prosperityfirst reddish oneKamarat FManushya
UttaramSunSurya, god of patronage and favourssecond reddish oneMokshaBull MManushya
HasthamMoonSasthan, Saviti or Suryathe handMokshaBuffalo FDeva
ChitiraiMarsVishvakarman, the celestial architect, Indrathe bright oneKamatiger FRakshasa
SwatiRahuVaayuname of ArcturusArthaBuffalo MDeva
VisakamJupiterKumara, Agni, god of Fireforked, having branches, rādhā the giftDharmatiger MRakshasa
AnushamSaturnLaxmi, Mitrafollowing rādhāDharmaDeer or Hare FDeva
KettaiMercuryIndrathe eldest, most excellentArthaDeer or Hare MRakshasa
MoolamKetuAsurar, Nirrti, goddess of dissolution and destructionthe rootKamaDog FRakshasa
PooradamVenusVaruna, god of Waterthe invincible oneMokshamonkey MManushya
UttaradamSunGanapathi, Visvedevas, universal godssecond of the aṣāḍhāMokshaMongoose MManushya
AbhijitBrahmavictorious
ThiruvonamMoonVishnuShravanaArthaMonkey FDeva
AvittamMarsEight vasus, deities of earthly abundanceShravishthā - most famous, Dhanishta - swiftestDharmalion FRakshasa
SadayamRahuYama, god of cosmic waters, sky and earth,requiring a hundred physiciansDharmaHorse FRakshasa
PurattadhiJupiterKubera, an ancient fire dragonfirst of the blessed feetArthalion MManushya
UttarattadhiSaturnkamadhenu, dragon of the deepsecond of the blessed feetKamacow FManushya
RevathiMercurySani, nourisher, the protective deityprosperousMokshaelephant FDeva

Tips for locating nakshatras and their equivalent in other systems.
Indian listGreekChinese ArabSun sign or alignmentdeg from aswinTheoretical
AshwiniAlpha Aries* Peih Al Fargh al Thani14 Apr 00.00
BharaniDelta Aries Goei Al Batn al Hut28 Apr 1113.33
Krittika*Pleiades Leu Al Sharatain12 May2626.67
RohiniAldebaran Oei Al Butain26 May3840.00
MrigashiraOrionis Mao* Al Thurayya*9 June5153.33
AardhraBetelgeuse Pi Al Dabaran23 June6766.67
PunarvasuCastor and Pollux Tsee Al Hak'ah7 July8480.00
PushyaPraesepe Cancri Shen Al Han'ah21 July9393.33
AashleshaHydrae Tsing Al Dhira4 Aug104106.67
MaghaaRegulus Kwei Al Nathrah18 Aug121120.00
PubbaLeonis Lieu Al Tarf1 Sept137133.33
UttaraDenebola Sing, Al Jabhah14 Sept146146.67
HastaaCorvi Chang Al Zubrah28 Sept159160.00
ChitraSpica Yen Al Sarfah11 Oct172173.33
SwatiArcturus Tchin Al Awwa24 Oct183186.67
VishakaLibrae Kio Al Simak5 Nov193200.00
AnooradhaScorpionis Kang Al Ghafr20 Nov209213.33
JyeshtaAntares Ti Al Jubana4 Dec217226.67
MoolaLamda Scorpionis Fang Iklil al Jabhah17 Dec229240.00
PoorvashadaSigma Sagittarii Sin Al Kalb29 Dec251253.33
UttaraShadaDelta Sagittarii Wei Al Shaulah12 Jan272266.67
AbhijitVega Ki Al Na'am
ShravanaAltair or Aquilae Tow Al Baldah25 Jan294280.00
DhanishtaDelta Delphinis Nieu Al Sa'd al Dhabih7 Febr304293.33
ShatabhishaSigma Aquarii Mo Al Sa'd al Bula20 Febr312306.67
Poorva BhadraAlpha Pegasi Heu Al Sa'd al Su'ud5 Mar329320.00
Uttara BhadraGama Pegasi (Andromedae) Gui Al Sa'd al Ahbiyah18 Mar341.5333.33
RevathiPiscium Shih Al Fargh al Mukdim31 Mar351.5346.67

* represents first nakshatra for the particular system.

Kumara - Skanda - Seyon

Mars, Krittika and Vishaka, associated with Kumara/skanda/seyon.
(1) Mars அங்காரகா
தரநீ கர்ப்ப ஸம்பூதம்,வித்யுத் காந்தி ஸமப்ரபம்
குமரம் ஷக்தி ஹஸ்தம் தம் மங்களம் ப்ரநமாம்யஹம்
ஒம். அக்னிர் மூர்த்தா ----  ம்ருடாதீத்ருசே. ---- அங்காரகாய நம:

(2) Krittika கிருத்திகை: Pleiades, Leu and Al Sharatain by Greek, Chinese and Arab.
ஓம் வன்னிதேஹாயை வித்மஹேமஹாதபாயை தீமஹி தன்னோ க்ருத்திகா ப்ரசோதயாத்.
அக்னிர்ந: பாது க்ருத்திகா:.. நக்ஷத்ரந்  ----- அக்நிர்நோ தேவஸ்ஸுவிதே ததாது… க்ருத்திகா நக்ஷத்திர தேவதா அக்நயே நம:

(3) Vishaka விசாகம்: - Librae, Kio and Al Simak by Greek, Chinese and Arab.
ஓம் இந்த்ராக்நௌச வித்மஹே மஹாச்ரேஷ்ட்யைச தீமஹி தன்னோ விசாகா ப்ரசோதயாத்
தூரமஸ்மச்சத்ர வோ யந்து பீதா:. ததீந்த்ராக்னீ -----  விந்த்த்ராக்னீ புவன.ஸ்ய கோபெள . 
விஷூ ச : சத்ரூனப பாதமாநெள. அபக்ஷுதந்நுத தாமராதிம்.. விஷாக நக்ஷதிர தேவதாப்யாம் இந்திராக்னீப்யாம் நம:.

காந்தி அக்னிர் வன்னிதேஹா ததீந்த்ராக்னீ விந்த்த்ராக்னீ இந்திராக்னீ -
Words in these slokas: kanthi Agnir Vannideha Tadhindraknee Vintraknee Indiragni 
- are all connected with flame/light, red, energy

Polynesians - Matariki

*Ancient Polynesians have used over 100 astronomical objects, for navigation all over pacific ocean. It is a real wonder. Around 60 astronomical objects have been identified by researchers (wellington museum and library). Much bigger than our 27/28 nakshatra list. Kalingas/Cholas have employed polynesians (தெற்கு தீவுவாசிகள் in tamil) to travel around in southern seas. Places are known as தென்கண்டம் or தென்புலம் or தென்றேயம். Ex: long poem கந்துவதா யெந்தன் .... வந்து தென்றேயம்.

Matariki constellation is cluster of stars, is part of the Taurus constellation. Known as Krittika*, Pleiades, Leu and Al Sharatain by Indian, Greek, Chinese and Arab. Krittika (from divine eyes) or birth of kumara has sumerian connections. In Japan it is called Subaru meaning to govern.

Aotearoa’s Matariki – sometime referred to as Māori New Year – arrives mid-winter and marks the beginning of the new year for many iwi with the reappearance of the Matariki constellation in the east before sunrise in June-July. It will help break up the cold winter months because it will always be on a Monday or Friday. Polynesians celebrate when Matariki or Krittika star seen just before sunrise, while Indians celebrate when Krittika star rises just after sunset in Nov/Dec. When rises with full moon, it is Karthigai deepam

Matariki literally means the 'eyes of god' (mata ariki) or 'little eyes' (mata riki). When Ranginui, the sky father, and Papatūānuku, the earth mother were separated by their offspring, the god of the winds, Tāwhirimātea, became angry, tearing out his eyes and hurling them into the heavens. Matariki is the star that signifies reflection, hope, our connection to the environment and the gathering of people. Matariki is also connected to the health and wellbeing of people. The optimum time to observe the rising of Matariki is in the phase of the moon known as Tangaroa, the moon of plenty. The Tangaroa moon phase occurs in the three or four days leading to a new moon and will fall on different dates each year. We call it Ekadashi, or 11th day. Polynesians go for location of star in the sky.

(1) June 24, 2022
Matariki public holiday on Friday, June 24, 2022 Ekadashi
At 5:00 am Horizon (Lagna) is Krittika 34.45 deg
(At 7:24 am Surya raises in Ardra 68.14 deg
Nakshatra at horizon changes every 53.33 min, 1 hour approx 
From 2 hour before sunrise, difficult to see stars at horizon.)
Before Sun sets Lagna will be Krittika & Rohini
https://www.twoa.ac.nz/hononga-stay-connected/te-iwa-o-matariki?sc_lang=en#how-many-stars-does-matariki-have

Arundhati and Vashistha

Arundhati and Vashistha is a twin star system. None of the two stars are dominant over the other. They revolve around each other. one of the important marriage ritual is to get the couple locate and look at it in night. Now just the point to the sky in day time and see the stars, which is not possible.

Mizar is known as Vashista and Alcor is known as Arundhati. You'll spot Mizar first, as the middle star of the Big Dipper's handle. Look closely, and you'll see Alcor right next to Mizar. This pair of stars in the Big Dipper’s handle is famously called “the horse and rider.” If you can’t see fainter Alcor with the unaided eye, use binoculars to see Mizar’s nearby companion.

Ancient Hindus, Chinese, Japanese, Romans, Greeks and Babylonians all have tracked Arundhati and Vashishta or Mizar and Alcor. The two are visible year round from the mid-northern hemisphere. (may be around 8 PM). Apart from Alcor, Mizar being double star, they themselves are binary and four stars. Alcor a binary, consisting of Alcor A and Alcor B. Alcor binary system is gravitationally bound to the Mizar quadruple system – making six stars in all.

Vaikuntha Ekadashi

2 January 2023 Monday Vaikuntha Ekadashi in Auckland
Before sunrise, Lagna & Chandra in Mula
sunrise in UttaraShada/Abhijit (257.04 deg). 

Before Sun sets Lagna will be Krittika & Rohini

Moola (The Root) or Lamda Scorpionis, Fang and Iklil al Jabhah by Indian, Greek, Chinese and Arab.
Moola means root. Also means start, first/entrance.
Once in way Mars/Venus/comet could have been observed during this time.

This could have been the source for Vaikuntha Ekadashi festival.
Early morning opening of zodiac, gate of heaven/Vaikuntha.
Similar story in chaldean magii, sages and christmas star in december, used in bible.

Abhijit - Vega - Whanui

Whanui in Maori/Polynesians is Abhijit, Vega, Ki and Al Na'am by Indian, Greek, Chinese and Arab. Abhijit associated with Brahma (victorious or creator). Lot of stories on Abhijit. Abhijit means victorious and Abhijit Muhurta is the timing at which the event or activity initiated will make the native victorious.

Whanui is invoked for abundant food. Whanui stole tuber kumara (sweet potato) from his brother Rongo-ma-tāne, and brought them to earth where his wife Pani introduced them as food to humans. As the star Vega, his rising signals the time for the harvest. When it moves slowly it is a sign of plentiful crops and an abundance of food. But when it moves swiftly, as if blown by the wind, then the coming season will be one of great scarcity, a lean season (he tau hiroki). When Whanui is seen flashing above the eastern horizon as autumn approaches, it is the sign for taking up of the kumara crop.
"Whanui atua ka eke mai i te rangi e roa e
Whangainga iho ki te mata o te tau e roa e."
The expression mata o te tau denotes the first fruits of the season.

Additional Notes on nakshatras

There has been much speculation as to the origin of the constellations found in different parts of the world like babylon, India, china etc. They were designed as a pictorial scientific coordinate system, like the lines of latitude and longitude for determining locations on the earth. The constellations perform a similar function, but they employ pictures, which make it easy to identify stars without need of instruments. Historically, the movement of the moon across the background of fixed stars was studied, and the month was defined as the period from one new moon to the next. Since the moon moves across the fixed stars in a time period of 27 or 28 days (this siderial month is actually 27.321661 days), its zodiacal path in the sky was divided into 27 or 28 parts.
  1. The starting point for the nakshatras is the point on the ecliptic directly opposite to the star Spica called Chitra in Sanskrit. It is called Meshadi by Lagadha.
  2. Ashwini is classified as a Small constellation, precise or delicate nature Bharani is she who supports, maintains.
  3. MRIGASIRA, head of the Deer is the constellation Orion.
  4. Arudra nakshatra (Betelgeuse) means the goddess of fortune. Symbol a teardrop means wet or surcharged with water
  5. Punarvasu are the two brightest stars in the constellation of Gemini
  6. Magha in Leo means 'Grand' or 'Noble'.
  7. Purva Phalguni and Uttar Phalguni means reddish, a double star constellation
  8. Hasta belongs to Virgo and its symbol is a hand
  9. Swati or star Arcturus or star which converts dew drops into pearls.
  10. Jyeshtha (The Eldest) is associated with Indra, chief of the gods
  11. Mula (The Root)

The classical western map of the sky, with the 48 Greek constellations, was derived from at least two different pre-Greek traditions. One tradition comprised the 12 signs of the zodiac, with several associated animal constellations, all of which developed over 3,200-500 BC in Mesopotamia in a religious or ritual tradition. The other tradition comprised large constellations which appear to date from 2,800 BC, devised for the navigators of ships. They include huge bears and serpents which marked the celestial pole and equator at that time, and probably the four anonymous giants which we know as Hercules, Ophiuchus, Bootes, and Auriga, as well as some of the large southern 'marine' constellations.


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